One of the most important and ancient cities of Central Asia, founded in I century BC, located in the lower reaches of the river Zarafshan – Kizilkum desert oasis. Data on ancient Bukhara contain in work of the great Arab traveler and scientist ibn Batuta (1304-1369) “Rikhl”, in notes of the Italian merchant and
traveler Mark Polo (1254-1324), however for the first time Bukho’s (Buho) term is noted Xuan Chien about 630 AD.
In transfer from a Sanskrit, the city means “monastery” (vikhara) – the big quantity of mosques and madrasah define shape of «sacred Bukhara» – places of pilgrimage of adherents of Islam. In the XV century, lived here Sheik Bagautdin Naqshbandi – the founder of the Order of Sufis, whose teaching has spread around the world.
The great Silk way which has opened possibilities of trade between the East and the West, served further blossoming of the city which becomes financial and shopping center. Lying at an intersection of caravan tracks, the city was connected with Persia, China, India and Russia, the main directions of international trade here were crossed, merchants, handicraftsmen, scientists, musicians from the various countries here gathered.
In the Middle Ages the city gets the status of cultural and scientific center: the well-known poets and scientists lived and created in Bukhara – Rudaki, Firdousi, Narshakhi, Al-arabi, Abu Ali ibn Sino (Avicenna), etc.
The numerous architectural and cultural monuments of Bukhara which have remained up to now (about 170), are witnesses of centuries-old history of the city:
– Ismail Samani’s mausoleum – Dynasty tomb of the Samanids (9-10 centuries) – the unique construction which does not have analog in the world;
– a citadel Ark – the residence of governors of Bukhara;
– a mosque and Kalyan’s minaret – a symbol of the city of Bukhara (XII century);
– Ulugbek’s madrasah (XV century) – known for saying on a portal: «The aspiration to knowledge – is a duty of all Muslims: each Muslim and each Moslem» and many other.
In vicinities of Bukhara there are ancient sogdiysky sites of ancient settlement, such as: Varakhsha, Paykend, of interest not only for archeologists, but also for guests of the city, and also the country residence of the last emir of Bukhara – Sitora and Mocha Hosa, a necropolis Chor Bakr, Bagautdin Nakshbandi’s complex
Modern Bukhara has an area of 710 hectares, the basic plan,
established depending on the terrain and numerous rearrangements, preserved to this day. The city today – a living embodiment of the long history, it is the most complete in Bukhara traced all the archaeological layers. Up to now remained not only separately taken cultural and historical monuments, but also the whole quarters (waved) Middle Ages eras.
Bukhara was and remains the multinational city – during walks on the ancient city it is possible to hear the Uzbek, Tajik, Russian speech, and also foreign. Bukhara – “Sheriff” sacred Bukhara, is attractive point for numerous tourists from all over the world, and also the pilgrims making a hajj in sacred places.
Ancient Bukhara is declared by the State historical and architectural memorial estate, many monuments in the city are declared by monuments of the world cultural and historical heritage and taken under UNESCO protection.