Official language Tadjik (state)
Recognized regional languages Russian
The largest cities Dushanbe, Khojend, Kulyab, Kurgan Tyube, Khorog
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
President Emomali Rahmon
Territory 142 000 km ²
Population 7 616 400 people
Currency code Somoni (TJS)
Internet TLD .tj
Telephone code +992
Time zone TJD (UTC +5)
Tadjikistan is a republic in Central Asia, located in the foothills of the Pamirs. Its territory is more than 143,100 sq.km. Tajikistan borders in the North and the West on Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, in the south on Afghanistan, in the east on China. Capital – Dushanbe. The country population is more than 6.1 million people. Tajikistan is the only Persian-speaking country in Central Asia.
The highest ranges of the world Tien Shan, Gissar-Alay and the Pamirs, are located in the territory of the country. The highest peak in the country is Peak Samanion (7495 m.) There are more than a thousand mountain glaciers in Tadjikistan. The largest of them is the mountain-valley glacier of Fedchenko. Its length is about 77 km. Up to 1300 cubic kilometers of fresh water is concentrated in Pamir-Alay glaciers. Rough mountain rivers abundant in water originate here. The main part of drain (88 %) account for the river basin of the Amu Darya. The large tributary of the Amu Darya is the river Zeravshan. Its waters are fully used for irrigation. The northern part of the republic is crossed by the river Syr-Darya.
Depending on the height natural landscapes of Tadjikistan vary: below are valleys and deserts, above -foothills covered with woods, in high mountains -the Alpine meadows, higher above – permafrost. The climate is sharply continental and arid. In valleys summer is hot and long. The average temperature of July is +29… +31° C. Above in the mountains, air temperature is accordingly lower. The plant and animal life of Tajikistan is diverse. Here live 50 % of rare kinds of animals and 15 % of birds entered in the Red book.
The territory of modern Tadjikistan had been inhabited by the middle of the 1st millennium BC by Sogdians and Bactrians, who established the most ancient states on this land – Sogdiana and Bactria. In the VIth century BC this territory was occupied by the Persian power of Achaemenians, and later for almost a millennium Tajikistan was under the power of Macedonians, Arabs, Mongols and other conquerors.
Tadjikistan is known for many sights of ancient history and culture. Among them there are monuments unique in their own way. One of such monuments is located in the north of the republic, in the valley of the Zeravshan river -the city of Pendzhikent. In the Vth — VIIIth centuries until the Arabian conquest, Pendzhikent was the centre of one of Sogdian princedoms. Here archeologists found the remains of inhabited and public buildings, a citadel with a palace, a necropolis; incomparable wall murals (scenes from the life of local population before the Arabian conquest).
Not far from Pendzhikent, on the Mug Mountain, an archive of documents of a Pendzhikent governor, written in the Sogdian language was found. Decoding of these documents allows to judge about social and economic life of people of Central Asia in the VIII century. On the site of the excavation a museum- reserve was created. The Architectural composition of palaces and temples of Pendzhikent, according to scientists and experts, is unique and has no analogues either in Central Asia or in other countries.
In the south of Tajikistan, in the place of Adzhinatepe, near Kurgan Tyube city, archeologists have found out traces of an ancient Buddhist monastery of VII — VIII centuries, including a 12-metre figure of lying Buddha. In the territory of modern Tajikistan other ancient cities such as Hodzhent, Ura-Tjube (it is still famous for products of local masters-handicraftsmen), Isfara, Kanibadam, etc. are also located. All these monuments are true masterpieces defining the high role and worthy place of art of Tadjiks in the system of common cultural achievements of the peoples of the East.